What is VPN (Virtual Private Network) and How it works ?
“Virtual Private Network is a network technology which creates a secure network on the public network such as the Internet. Large corporations, educational institutions, and government agencies use VPN technology to remote users to connect their private network to securely”.
VPN can be used to connect multiple sites of large differences. It is similar to Wide Area Network (WAN). With the use of VPN, Users can securely share data over public networks by connecting the private network. Technically, the VPN connection (LAN) gives all the benefits of the Local Area Network.
How PVN works?
Here are two main technologies, which can be used to create a VPN connection, which transmits data securely and reliably on the public network. It is Encryption and Tunneling.
Encryption: In simple words, Encryption is the process of using an algorithm to transform information to make it unreadable for unauthorized users. This cryptographic method protects sensitive data such as credit card numbers. This encoded data may only be decrypted or made readable with a key. Symmetric-key and Asymmetric-key are the two primary types of encryption. Encryption is essential for ensured and trusted delivery of sensitive information.
Tunneling: On the other hand, tunneling means making a tunnel on the public network in which the whole packet is transmitted to the public network in another packet. In this, the encapsulating protocol is chosen in such a way that other computers or network devices cannot comprehend it while transmitting data to the public network.
VPN Network Protocols:
Many security protocols have been developed in VPN, each of which offers different security and features.
The following protocols are used more often:
1) IP security (IPSec): This is often used to secure the internet connection.
2) PPTP: Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol, This is a technology that is used to create VPN. PPTP does not encrypt, but it only tunnels and encapsulate the data packets.
3) L2TP: Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol This is the extension of PPTP protocol, which enables ISP to operate VPN.
4) SSL and TLS: SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security) make this VPN connection, where the web browser works as a client and the entire user Instead of access to the network. SSL and TLS protocols are used by most online shopping websites and service providers.
5) Secure Shell (SSH): SSH is known as Secure Socket Shell, it is a network protocol, by which administrators can securely access remote computers. Secure Shell, on the unsecured network like the Internet, has two stringent authentication and encrypted data communication between computers.
Types of VPN:
The VPN has been split down on the basis of architecture, the purpose of use and accessibility.
1) PPTP VPN: This is the most common and widely used VPN protocol. In this, users connect to the VPN network using the password authentication on the VPN on the existing Internet connection. This does not require additional hardware and its features are often available as a cheap add-on software. Its disadvantage is that it does not provide encryption and it is for implementing security measures, it depends on the PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol).
2) Site-to-Site VPN: Except for just one thing, Site-to-Site VPN is almost like PPTP, there is no dedicated line usage in it. In this, different sites of the same organization, each one has their own network, connect together to create a VPN. Unlike PPTP, routing, encryption, and decryption are both built on the router, which can be based on a hardware or software.
3) Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure Internet Protocol suite that ensures secure communication by authenticating and encrypting every IP packet in the communication session. IPsec contains all of the protocols that establish for mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session between IPsec host to host, network-to-network or network -to-host and it can also be used to protect data flows.